Digital radiography & fluoroscopy, image viewing and PACS, and quality control

Topics covered

Introduction

Step 1 - Digital radiography

Step 1.1 - Image acquisition

Step 1.2 - Equipment

Step 1.2.1 - Flat-panel detectors

Step 1.3 - Grid

Step 1.4 - Collimation

Step 1.5 - Patient radiation dose

Step 1.6 - Digital mammography

Step 1.7 - Advantages of digital radiography imaging system

Step 2 - Digital fluoroscopy

Step 2.1 - Digital fluoroscopy equipment

Step 2.1.1 - X-ray tube and generator

Step 2.1.2 - Digital fluoroscopy with image intensifier and CCD

Step 2.1.3 - Digital fluoroscopy with flat-panel detector

Step 2.2 - Advantages of flat-panel detectors

Step 2.3 - Digital subtraction angiography

Step 2.3.1 - Digital subtraction equipment

Step 2.3.2 - Image acquisition

Step 2.3.3 - Temporal subtraction

Step 2.3.4 - Energy subtraction

Step 2.3.5 - Roadmapping

Step 2.3.6 - Patient radation dose

Step 2.4 - Post-processing Step 2.4.1 - Windowing

Step 2.4.2 - Edge enhancement

Step 3 - Digital image viewing and picture archiving and communication system (PACS)

Step 3.1 - Display and viewing of the digital image

Step 3.2 - Photometry

Step 3.3 - Digital display monitor

Step 3.3.1 - Active matrix liquid crystal display

Step 3.3.2 - Advantages of an AMLCD over a CRT

Step 3.3.3 - Disadvantage of an AMLCD over a CRT

Step 3.3.4 - Advantages of soft copy over hard copy images

Step 3.4 - Picture archiving and communication system

Step 3.4.1 - Components of picture archiving and communication system

Step 3.4.2 - Image compression

Step 3.4.3 - PACS workflow

Step 4 - Digital display and imaging system quality control, and artifacts

Step 4.1 - Daily routine checks

Step 4.2 - Weekly checks

Step 4.3 - Monthly checks

Step 4.4 - Digital display quality control

Step 4.4.1 - Luminance testing

Step 4.4.2 - Distortion testing

Step 4.4.3 - Reflection testing

Step 4.4.4 - Luminance response

Step 4.4.5 - Digital display noise

Step 4.5 - Image artifacts

Step 4.5.1 - Computed radiography image receptor artifacts

Learning objectives

  • Describe the capture, coupling, and collection stages of each type of digital radiographic imaging system
  • Discuss the use of silicon, selenium, cesium iodide, and gadolinium oxysulphide in digital radiography
  • Describe the parts of a digital fluoroscopy system and explain their functions
  • Outline the procedures for temporal subtraction and energy subtraction
  • Describe the effect of conditions such as luminance and ambient lighting on viewing digital images
  • Compare the advantages and disadvantages of hard and soft copy images
  • Describe the Picture Archival and Communication System (PACS) and its function, including differences between the Hospital Information System (HIS), Radiology Information System (RIS), and Digital Imaging and Communications (DICOM)
  • Describe data flow and networking between systems
  • Discuss the systematic management of patient data and errors that may occur in the workflow when utilizing the digital system
  • Discuss the quality control test and preventive maintenance schedule used for digital display devices
  • Explain how digital image artifacts occur and how to avoid them
  • Analyze the use of an image histogram and look-up table (LUT) in digital image artifacts
  • Explain the Patient's Bill of Rights, Patient Privacy Rule (HIPAA) and Patient Safety Act 

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